Despite the fact that eggplants are a popular plant, not every summer resident can grow it in the garden.
Eggplants are thermophilic members of the nightshade family.
100 grams of eggplant contains only:
- 24 calories
- protein - 1.2 grams,
- fat - 0.1 grams,
- carbohydrate 4.5 grams.
The coarse fiber found in eggplant helps to eliminate toxins from the body. This culture is useful for people of old age, because it contains potassium, which helps to fight cardiovascular diseases. Substances contained in the fruit, help to reduce cholesterol in the body and restore the water-salt balance.
Getting a good harvest of this crop depends on certain conditions. You can learn about the varieties and cultivation of eggplants in detail from our article and while watching the video that is presented at the end.
The emergence of new varieties, such as the King of the North, Bibo, Albatross, as well as information about the growth characteristics of this plant, will allow to grow and get a rich harvest of eggplants even in areas with an unfavorable climate, including in Siberia and the Urals.
Choosing a site for growing eggplant
The methods used to grow eggplants are very similar to the agrotechnical features of growing tomatoes and peppers. The plant is very fastidious in terms of heat and light, it must be watered in sufficient volume. Summer resident, who decided to start growing eggplants, should be aware of the following principles:
- The growth rate of a given crop and the yield depend on the amount of light received, insufficient light affects the state of health and the speed of plant development, the appearance of fruits.
- The same result is waiting for a lack of moisture.
- Low temperature is another factor that adversely affects the development of eggplant. Some varieties of this plant at a low temperature do not form the ovary or dump already appeared fruits and buds.
For eggplant, the temperature is comfortable from 25 to 28 degrees. Increasing the temperature of the plant tolerates much better than other varieties of this culture, provided sufficient moisture.
It is not allowed to plant the plants on the beds where the cultivation of pepper, potatoes, and tomatoes was previously carried out, since this would be a violation of the crop rotation rule.
Tip! Planting eggplants next to the beds of related crops is not recommended, since there is a high probability of the appearance of diseases caused by the same pathogens.
The proposed agricultural technique of growing eggplants in the open field will allow you to collect a full-fledged harvest annually. The technique has been repeatedly tested and ground in practice.
Seeds, carefully selected varieties, are sown in late winter - early spring (late February - early March). The exact date of planting can be determined independently - it is only necessary to count 80-90 days before the planned planting of seedlings in open ground or in the greenhouse.
Seeds should be kept in warm water at a temperature of + 50 ° C for 15-20 minutes, and then in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (also 15-20 minutes) for disinfection.
Eggplants love rich soil, so the soil mixture, which is poured into the boxes for seedlings, should contain sod land, peat and humus in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
The depth of embedding eggplant seeds - 10-15 mm. The distance between adjacent rows of 5 cm, and between plants - 3 cm.
After sowing seeds, the soil should be watered with warm water, with the addition of a small amount of potassium permanganate, and then put the container with the seeds in a warm place (not below + 25 ° C), previously covered with a film or glass. After the emergence of seedlings (after about 1 week), the film must be removed and the box moved to a well-lit place. In the first days of the seedlings life, it is very important to provide them with light.
Growing seedlings of eggplants, you should be aware of the moisture-loving plants, so you need to water the seedlings regularly, not allowing the soil mixture to dry. Moreover, if a seedling feels good - it looks healthy and develops normally - you should feed it with mineral fertilizers (superphosphate - 75 grams, potash salt - 25 grams, urea - 25 grams per 5 liters of water), solution of chicken droppings (1: 20) or mullein (1:10). The frequency of feeding - 20-30 days.
Eggplant seedlings are planted in open ground in late May - early June, when the threat of frost has passed. The specific time of planting depends on the current weather - if in May it is warm and the weather forecast does not foretell a cooling, then eggplant seedlings can be planted on May 25, and if it is cold and damp, then it should be postponed.
Seedlings ready for planting, ideally, should have 6-8 true leaves, be 10-15 cm tall and have a well-developed root system.
The recommended spacing between rows is 70-100 cm, and 30-50 cm between neighboring plants in the same row. In any case, the interval should be sufficient for trouble-free cultivation of the land around the growing eggplant plants, watering and spraying (or collecting) the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle or adults Zhukov. These potato lovers appreciate the taste of eggplants tops and flowers higher than those of the usual potato tops - eggplants are a delicacy for them.
Cultivation and care
Upon completion of the procedure of planting seedlings in open ground, further care for the eggplant is loosening the soil, weeding, pest and disease control, watering and regular feeding.
Remember, eggplants are very demanding on soil moisture! Watering plants should be no less than 1 time per week (if it is warm and dry weather). Wash eggplant with warm water (water is heated in the sun). The volume of water per plant should be such that the earth is saturated with water to a depth of 40–50 cm.
If the eggplants began to “dump” a part of the flower buds or ovaries, this indicates a lack of nutrition and water supply for the plants. In this way, the plants signal to you the need for urgent feeding or watering.
For the entire vegetation period in open ground, it is recommended to feed the eggplants 2-3 times with a solution of chicken manure (1:20), mullein (1:10) or mineral (mainly nitrogen) fertilizers:
- the first feeding - at the beginning of flowering and formation of ovaries,
- the second - before the massive harvest,
- the third - after a massive harvest, during the formation of the fruit on the side shoots.
Eggplants do not like strong wind - it can break the fragile stems of plants. To protect against the wind, it is recommended to make a backstage of corn, sunflower or beans around the perimeter of the site with eggplants. These plants help to create optimal conditions for the development of eggplants - protect them from the wind and, preventing the spread of infection, prevent diseases that develop in wet and cool weather.
Diseases and pests
The tender greens of the eggplant plants are loved by many pests, but the spider mite, slugs and the Colorado potato beetle are most dangerous for the future harvest.
Fighting the Colorado potato beetle is one of the main problems in growing eggplants. Unfortunately, this wonderful culture is a real treat for him. In early summer, beetles (as, indeed, slugs, caterpillars) insects can be collected by hand. However, when larvae appear massively on plants, chemical or herbal preparations should be used.
Against other pests and diseases, you can apply extracts of wormwood, yarrow, onion peels, garlic, as well as Bordeaux liquid (1% solution), copper sulphate with soda ash.
You can start harvesting as the fruit ripens - a rare gardener will be waiting for full ripeness. Eggplants are quite edible in the phase of technical ripeness, when they become characteristic of the variety size, become purple or dark purple in color, and the flesh becomes elastic and juicy.
Fruit picking is recommended in stages, with an interval of 1 week. Ripe eggplants should be carefully cut with a knife or shears along with the stem.
Where can I grow eggplants in the open field
The cultivation conditions for eggplants are somewhat different from the cultivation of other vegetable crops. The main differences are as follows:
- yield is provided only on fertile soils with a light structure,
- even short frosts are excluded after landing,
- the temperature minimum at which the plant slows down development is +20 degrees,
- the length of daylight should be within 12 hours,
- reaction to the lack of moisture - dropping the buds and ovaries.
Growing in Siberia
It is unlikely that it would be possible to grow in open ground in Siberia ordinary varieties that were cultivated exclusively in the southern countries.
Thanks to many years of work, breeders managed to produce quite a lot of hybrids that differ cold resistance and short aging times and they can be grown not only in the Kuban.
Popular varieties include Matrosik, the Nutcracker, the Violet Miracle, Robin Hood.
In the presence of strict conditions, getting a harvest of blue ones in the Urals is considered a great success. For planting selected varieties with maturity no more than 95 days. But even this factor does not guarantee success, because the whole thing is in agricultural technology. It should be aimed at accelerating growth.
Popular varieties are: Clorinda, Helios, Epic.
In the Moscow region
With the right selection of varieties and hybrids, you can plant eggplant in the suburbs and in the suburbs. Many summer residents of the Moscow Region have already managed to verify this.
Planting is done using the rassadny method in mid or late Maywhen the threat of night frosts, which may be in the spring, has passed. Among the popular varieties: Marathon runner, Kashalot, Balagur, Alekseevsky.
Terms for planting eggplant in open ground
Given the climatic features of our country, the cultivation of eggplants in open beds is carried out by seedling. Seeds need to be planted in boxes or containers. in late March. By the time the seedlings are transferred to the open ground, 3-5 leaves will be formed, the stem and the root system will be strengthened.
Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground can be planned in the second half of may. Works can be carried out only in case of establishment of night temperature. not below 15 degrees.
Experienced gardeners are not advised to hurry with the planting of seedlings, since at low temperatures it will not develop anyway, and it will completely die at frost. But while perederzhivat seedlings in a greenhouse or other room is also dangerous.
Transplant need to perform before budding. If the young shoots have already formed the ovary, the culture will be more difficult to adapt to new conditions, it will become vulnerable to any diseases.
Transplantation of seedlings to the ground must be done before the budding period.
Growing eggplants has a number of significant differences:
- "Blue" requires more heat than tomatoes and peppers: if the temperature is below +20, their pollination and fruit growth simply stops,
- these vegetables do not tolerate frosts, this is especially true for young seedlings planted in the spring in open ground,
- with a lack of moisture, the buds and ovaries from the plant fall off, and the fruits become ugly,
- The eggplant that came from the south likes a bright but short light day, no longer than 12 hours,
- “Blue” to the fertility of the soil is very demanding - a good harvest can be obtained on light, fertile soils. Growing eggplants in the open field is possible next to peppers and tomatoes.
The observance of crop rotation is also of considerable importance: the cultivation of this vegetable in open ground is possible near the pepper and tomatoes, but not after them. In general, after the nightshade (including after themselves), eggplants can be planted only after three years. Almost all other vegetable crops are suitable precursors. These vegetables feel good after carrots, cucumbers, onions, early cabbage, legumes and melons.
What varieties of eggplant are suitable for growing in open ground
- King of the north. Early variety with frost resistance, but shoots need to be hardened. From a bush 3-4 kg of a crop turn out. At maximum maturity, there are almost no voids in the fruit. With proper storage does not lose its attractiveness up to 2 months. Suitable for blanks.
- Bibo. Superearly unpretentious variety. Fruits are white, I can reach the weight per pound.
- Black handsome. Small fruits (up to 200 g) of dark, almost black color. From the bush it turns out up to 3 kg of a crop. Variety is afraid of frost.
- Albatross. Teary fleshy fruit without voids. Suitable for blanks and long-term storage. Perfectly transported without damage.
- Diamond. A real decoration of the garden. Miniature spherical bushes are often used for decorative purposes. At the same time from one bush can collect up to 8 kg of crop. The weight of one fruit - 180 g
- Marzipan. The fruit is in the form of pears, their color is deep, purple. The main advantage of the variety is the delicate taste of the fruit.
- Vakula The variety is unpretentious, patient with temperature changes. From one bush it turns out up to 8 kg of a crop.
Cooking a bed
The bed for eggplants is better to provide in sheltered from the wind, sunny place, clean from weeds. It is great if you have light loamy or sandy-loamy soils on the site that the blue people like so much. What to do in other cases:
- in case of heavier soils, it is necessary to introduce humus and peat during autumn digging. Adding sawdust, river sand or straw cutting for autumn digging will also help make the soil easier.
- if the ground is sandy, you need to add clay soil, peat and sawdust,
- sod land with humus is introduced into peat soil.
In the seedling method of planting eggplants, the soil must be prepared in the autumn, having dug 30 centimeters deep, adding the necessary components with fertilizers (potassium sulphate, superphosphate, urea) and removing the weeds. In April, destroy the remaining weeds, larvae pests and roll the soil. It is recommended to carry out these works after rain so that the moisture in the ground is better preserved.
A bed up to 30 cm high, no more than one meter wide, is suitable for this vegetable. The length of the beds, each gardener determines at its discretion. The prepared bed is leveled with a rake and the ground is spilled with a hot solution of mullein, or with the “Effecton” fertilizer.
Proper seed sowing for seedlings
The first step is to prepare the soil for seedlings. It must meet the following requirements: neutral, light, loose, fertile. You can buy ready-made soil mix in a specialty store or prepare it yourself using one of the following recipes:
- River sand + lowland peat + compost in proportions of 1: 4: 3.
- Humus + turf + rotted mullein in proportions of 8: 2: 1.
- Peat + rotted sawdust in proportions 3: 1.
- Humus + turf in proportions of 2: 1.
- Humus + peat in proportions of 2: 1.
The soil must first be decontaminated. To do this, hold it for 40 minutes in a hot oven or in a water bath. If you do not have such an opportunity, pour boiling water over the soil abundantly to kill the harmful microbes. For 10 kg of any of these mixtures, after sterilization, ½ cup of potassium sulfate or 1 cup of wood ash should be added. Before planting, hold the ground for about 14 days in a warm place so that useful microorganisms develop in it.
The best place to plant seeds is peat cups or tablets. However, you can use plastic cups, but they must first be treated with a strong solution of manganese. One day before planting, fill the containers with prepared soil and pour in plenty of water.
Seeds also need to be pre-cooked. To do this, first lower them for half an hour into a strong solution of manganese to disinfect. After that, wash the seeds, put them on a damp cloth and cover with another damp cloth. During the week, remove the seeds for the night in the fridge, and keep them in the daytime just in the room. Then soak them for 12 hours in warm water with a growth stimulator. It is best to use rainwater or melted ice for this. Next, dry the seeds.
Spread the prepared seeds of 2-3 pieces in each container and cover with a layer of earth 2 cm thick. Lightly tamp the earth and cover the containers with film. Maintain a temperature of 25-30 °.
Do you know that it is very convenient to grow seedlings in special cassettes. However, in this case, be sure to choose from a cassette with large cells, so you do not have to dive seedlings and injure her once again.
The height of the eggplant bush varies from 0.4 to 1.5 m. The large alternate leaf plates have a rough surface, they are painted green with a violet shade. Semi-umbellate inflorescences consist of 2-7 flowers, which can also be single. In diameter, bisexual purple flowers reach 20-25 mm. Flowering occurs in July – September. The fruit is a large, cylindrical, round-shaped or pear-shaped berry, it can be as long as about 0.7 m, and about 0.2 m in diameter. The fruit weighs about 1 kilogram and has a shiny or matt dark purple color. Inside they are flat little seeds of brownish color, they ripen in the last summer or first autumn weeks.
Preparing seedlings for growing
After the first sprouts appear, you can begin to prepare the seedlings for cultivation. To do this, remove the covering material from the seedlings and lower the temperature in the room in which it is located. The optimum daytime temperature is 14-16 °, at night 10-12 °. It is at this temperature that the root system develops most actively.
After a week, increase the daytime temperature to 25-27 °, and the nighttime temperature - to 12-14 °. It is very important to observe the difference between day and night temperatures, it imitates the natural conditions. After such training, seedlings easier to adapt to the open field.
Sowing eggplant seeds
Eggplant belongs to the Paslenov family, and it is considered its most thermophilic representative. Frosts can destroy it, so in the middle latitudes it is grown exclusively by seedlings. The duration of ripening of early ripening varieties is 100 days from the moment the seedlings appear. Late ripening varieties mature about 150 days. Sowing seeds for seedlings is recommended in the first half of March, it should be taken into account that during planting the eggplant in open soil, the ground should warm to at least 18 degrees, while only that seedlings that are not less than 75 days old can be planted.
Seeds of this plant need preplant preparation. Experienced gardeners recommend choosing the seed of the second, rather than the first year of storage, as it is more viable. To activate the seeds they need to be immersed for three days in a solution of potassium humate (3%). Then they are planted one by one in individual pots or cassettes. They need to be filled with a moistened substrate, which includes humus (20%), high-moor peat (60%), sawdust or sand (5%), biohumus (5%) and sod land (10%). In the soil mixture should be deepened by only 10 mm. When sowing is done, the substrate should be tamped down, after which the container on top is covered with glass or film.
How to grow eggplants in a seedling way
In the Russian climate, it is better to grow eggplants through seedlings, choosing the popular early varieties that have time to ripen in a short summer. Seeds before planting seedlings should be etched with a solution of potassium permanganate, conduct heat treatment, hold in hot water (temperature +50) for twenty minutes, and germinate.
Soil for seedlings mixed from fertile turf land, humus and sand in a ratio of 5: 3: 1. Additionally, phosphate, potash and nitrogen fertilizers are introduced into the earth.
Eggplant seedlings must be systematically watered so that the soil does not have time to dry
Sowing the seeds in boxes or small pots with soil mixture, they provide a temperature of +25 degrees before germination, then for five days the temperature is reduced to +16 degrees during the day and +13 degrees at night. In the future, the seedlings grow at temperatures from +18 in overcast weather to +28 in sunny weather. Before planting on a bed, seedlings are quenched for two weeks, allowing them to gradually get used to street conditions.
Eggplants must be systematically watered so that the soil does not have time to dry. When the first two true leaves appear, fertilizing is added in the form of a solution of superphosphate with potassium salt and urea. The second time is fed two weeks later.
When the plants form a good root system and reach 10 cm with five to seven true leaves, they can be planted on a bed. Of course, provided that the frosts are over and the weather is warm.
When the first two true leaves appear, fertilizing is added as a solution of superphosphate with potassium salt and urea.
Description and characteristics of vegetables
The homeland of culture is India. In those places, it grows like a wild plant. In the countries of our continent, eggplant was cultivated and planted for human consumption.
For information about the plant requires the study of its properties and characteristics. This will help grow vegetables and prevent mistakes.
- height: 0.4 to 1.5 m,
- leaves: oval, rough to the touch,
- color: green or purple,
- flowers: purple, 1 or 2-7 pieces. in the hands,
- flower diameter: 2.5-5 cm,
- refers to perennials.
- shape: pear-shaped, round, oblong or cylindrical,
- weight: reaches 1 kg,
- Color: black, purple and all shades,
- Appearance: glossy, sometimes matte,
The fruits of culture belong to the berries.
Many specifications vary according to grade. Therefore, it is not possible to give a clear description of eggplants.
Growing from seed
Despite the fact that the culture is perennial, gardeners prefer to sow it directly into the ground every year.
Eggplant planting material is tested for germination. Seeds (10 pcs.) Are wrapped in a piece of gauze, dipped in water, the temperature of which is no more than +27 С. After 24 hours, the water is drained, and the gauze and seeds are placed under room conditions at a stable temperature. Gauze is constantly wetted, it should not dry out. After 7-10 days, shoots will appear. Then, by the number of germinated seeds, it is determined whether it is worth planting them or not.
If more than half has been bitten, then planting material is used for sowing. If less than half, it is worth buying new seeds.
Plot digging and form the beds. Their height should be 30 cm, width - 1 m. Eggplant planting material is folded into a container and covered with gauze. Leave for several days for germination.
It is recommended to harden the seeds, as they are easier to tolerate lowering the temperature. Planting material is wrapped in gauze, left for a day at room temperature, then removed for 24 hours in the refrigerator. When the specified time passes, they again set it up in the room for a day. Then again put for 2 days in the refrigerator. After performing these actions produce seeding.
Soil temperature at planting not less than +15⁰C.
Close up the seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm, plentifully watered. Night frosts have a bad effect on eggplants, it is necessary to additionally wrap bushes. Sowing is carried out no earlier than June, possibly earlier, depending on the climate of the growing region.
To grow a culture in a seedling way, it takes a little time and effort. Following simple instructions, grow healthy seedlings. Planting material eggplants take no older than 3-4 years.
Initially, they prepare fertile soil in small and shallow containers. The composition of the land for seedlings:
- 1 part of turf land,
- 1 part of sand,
- 2 pieces of humus.
Sow to a depth of 5 mm, leaving 2 cm between the seeds.
When sowing of planting material is completed, the earth is moistened with a spray gun using warm water or boiled water cooled to +22 ° C. Tighten with polyethylene and put in a dark place until shoots appear. Ambient temperature +22 ⁰С. Shoots will appear in 10-14 days. After the container with shoots put on the window sill or other well-lit place.
Landing dates cottagers determine their own. In open ground, seedlings are planted after the passage of return frost. The day of sowing eggplants for seedlings is determined taking into account the peculiarities of the climate of the growing region.
There is no specific answer to this question. It all depends on what method eggplants are grown, what are the climate features and preferences of summer residents.
Since the summer is short and the growing season of the crop is long (3.5-4 months), it is preferable to grow the vegetable seedlings.
Therefore, seeds should be planted in advance, approximately in March. Calculate the date in such a way that by the time of landing at a permanent place, the seedlings will form 3-5 true leaves.
It is undesirable to plant seedlings with buds in the ground. She will transfer the transplant very painfully. And greatly lag behind in development.
Do not rush to plant the crop early. It will not lead to anything good. Eggplants do not develop at low temperatures. It is desirable that it does not fall below +15 ⁰С, and the ground warmed up to + 13 ⁰С.
If the culture is grown in a greenhouse, the planting dates are shifted. Eggplant seedlings are planted in the middle of winter, planted in a greenhouse in early May. The heated greenhouse provides for planting seeds in January, and seedlings of vegetables are transferred in early April.
Proper formation of beds should be given special attention, the future harvest also depends on this.
First choose a place. It is better to have a bed in a lighted area of the garden, protected from drafts.
Precursors, after which it is undesirable to plant eggplants:
Recommended crops, on the growth site of which beds with eggplants are placed for the following year:
Select the fertile composition of the soil. In the acidic soil is better to add a small amount of dolomite flour or lime.
Then organic is applied, for 1 m 2 3-4 kg of rotted manure are enough. In no case can not add fresh manure.
To improve the composition of the soil add mineral fertilizers. 1 m 2 - 30 g of superphosphate and 1 tbsp. spoon of potassium salt.
Eggplant roots are preferred soil that passes oxygen well. In the beds add river sand, peat. The earth is dug up and carefully leveled with the help of a rake.
To obtain the declared harvest of eggplants need to properly plant the plants. The landing scheme is simple. Should take into account the characteristics of varieties that are grown.
- 25-30 cm in the early varieties,
- 35-40 cm in middle and late varieties,
- 55-70 cm between rows,
- 15-17 cm depth of holes.
Compliance with the planting scheme will lead to the fact that the plants will develop properly and give the declared harvest. Otherwise, favorable conditions will be created for diseases and the appearance of insect pests.
Features of growing eggplant in the greenhouse
When the gardener decides to grow a crop in a greenhouse, you need to know about some of the features of vegetable care in greenhouses:
- The choice of varieties. Breeders try their best, bring out such species that grow in greenhouses and bring harvest. There are many similar varieties; it is worth choosing the most suitable one for the growing conditions.
- Greenhouse design. There must be vents for airing and creating the necessary temperature. In cold regions it is equipped with a heating system.
- Duration of daylight hours. Not less than 12 hours of sunlight, with a shortage of set lighting lamps.
- Watering. It is recommended to water with warm water. They irrigate the first time on the 5th day, it is undesirable to pour water on the leaves.
- Soil composition. The soil should be loose and fertile.
- Care. It is necessary to remove the flowers and feeding.
Experienced growers advise beginners to grow a crop in the greenhouse. It is easier to protect plants from wind and temperature changes.
Plant care rules
The final result depends on how well the eggplant care was carried out. No matter how well a variety is chosen and a place for planting, without proper care it will not be possible to achieve a positive result.
Watering and loosening
Culture does not tolerate shortages and excess moisture. Moderation is required during watering. Water consumption rates per plant depend on the size of the seedling itself. The more it is, the more moisture is required for normal development.
Water temperature for irrigation is not lower than +22 ⁰С. Lower temperatures inhibit root growth and the entire development of the plant.
Water is poured directly under the root, excluding moisture on the foliage. Do it 2 times a week. When the plant blooms, water 2-3 times within 7 days. When it is not possible to water frequently, do it abundantly.
Loosening eggplants need to get oxygen by the root system. Another reason to systematically loosening is the destruction of weeds. They bring a lot of problems to eggplants, because they are carriers of diseases and insect pests. Loosened, retreating from the roots of eggplant to 10 cm. The first loosening to a depth of 10 cm, then 12 cm.
If you pile up plants at least 4 times during the growing season, it stimulates the formation of additional lateral roots, which contributes to the rapid growth and development of ovaries.
An important role is played by the proper formation of eggplant bushes. Not all varieties require this procedure. Novice summer resident should be attentive to this point.
Form those plants that have reached 25-30 cm in height. Remove all stepchildren growing below the first bud. The first ovary is also pinned off.
To do it or not, a private affair of each grower. Experienced gardeners claim that the correct formation increases the yield from one plant several times.
Growing eggplant seeds
Eggplant bush with a height of 40-150 cm with large green leaves. Fruits grow up to 70 cm long, with a diameter up to 20 cm, weight is up to 1 kg of glossy-violet color.
Eggplant is a heat-loving and sun-loving plant. It grows well in places protected from the wind and where the sun shines.
Eggplant seeds germinate at a temperature of 25-26 degrees for 10-15 days. At emergence of shoots remove a film from pots, and increase illumination for seedlings, air temperature can be lowered over time to 16-20 degrees (so the eggplant seedlings will not stretch, the root system will be better developed).
Eggplants do not tolerate drafts and sudden changes in temperature, they can get sick. Seedlings require regular watering, periodically feeding.
By reducing irrigation, providing sufficient illumination and a cool place to accommodate the seedlings - the sprouts will not stretch, growth will slow down a bit, the plants will be green, strong and healthy.
If, however, it was not possible to sow the seeds in separate cups, the grown eggplant seedlings swoop down. Eggplants do not tolerate a dive, so try not to damage the plants when transplanting.
Eggplants are watered the day before the picking, then carefully removed from the total container and transferred to individual pots.
Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground
When the open ground warms up fairly well (+18 degrees), eggplant seedlings are planted. This happens around the end of May - the beginning of June. Seedlings should have 5 leaves and a root up to 10 cm long (sprout age 2-2.5 months).
Eggplant planting should be sunny and protected from the wind. The best predecessors in the eggplant sector are cucumber, cabbage, carrots, garlic, onions, and peas.
Transplant seedlings carried out in the afternoon.
Before planting in the soil, seedlings must be watered with warm distilled water.
The distance between plants is at least 40 cm, and between rows 60 cm.
Seedlings planted as follows:
- dug hole in size
- the hole is filled with warm distilled water
- the seedling sits in the hole and sprinkled with earth to the level of the surface
- Mulch a layer of peat land.
The first 2 weeks after landing follow the ground to remain all the time wet.
Attention! Do not forget the main rule when growing seedlings - it is better not to grow than to re-grow.
Eggplants have a fragile and delicate root system, so instead of constant weeding, cover the beds with non-woven material or dry grass.
During the flowering of flowers, eggplants are sprayed with sweet water for better pollination. Do not use chemicals at this time.
High varieties of eggplants must be tied to supports.
When to water eggplants
During the period of the mass formation of fruits, eggplants need abundant watering. Watered with warm separated water with a temperature of 25-30 degrees in the evening. Water only under the root without falling into the casting. The next day after watering, remove the weeds and carefully loosen the soil around the plants and between the rows.
Form an eggplant bush
A month after flowering on the bushes fruits are formed.
To obtain a high yield of eggplants, it is necessary to carry out the pasynkovanie bushes. Break the stepsons regularly, thereby forming a bush.
A well-developed shrub should have 3 side shoots and no more than 10 ovaries.
The formation of short-growing varieties does not require much effort, remove unnecessary ovaries, which do not have time to ripen before cold weather.
The formation of tall varieties may be different:
- bush in one stem, for tall varieties growing in a mini greenhouse, or weak plants, not able to keep all their fruits. Keep the strongest stalk tied to a support
- For medium-high plants form a bush with two shoots. Extra stepchildren are removed, there are 2 strong escape for growing fruits
- with an insufficient amount of seedlings, 3 main stems are left. This method is suitable for growing at a large distance between the bushes.
Shoots without ovaries should be removed. So the bush will look naked, the sun's rays fall well on the fruit.
Plant growth is stopped by pinching the top, so the crop begins to ripen faster.
When the air temperature is high, the flowers fall off, the ovaries are not formed correctly, the fruit is with a taste of bitterness.
Feeding eggplant in open ground
During the growing season, eggplants need three single feedings: a mixture of mineral fertilizers (10 g of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, and 3 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m 2 plot area) and manure mixtures.
The first feeding eggplant is carried out 10 days after transplanting into the ground.
The second feeding occurs 20 days after transplantation, the third after the appearance of the fruit.
After feeding do not forget to water the area.
Eggplant pests and diseases
Eggplants are subject to pest invasion when grown in open ground. Pests cause damage to plants - it is aphid, slugs, bears, thrips. It is necessary to treat the plant with phyto-farm. They love eggplants and Colorado beetles.
Eggplants are subject to various fungal and bacterial diseases. They are affected by gray rot, stolbur, mosaic, late blight.
Spray the plants with Phytosporine (harmless to humans and animals) 3-4 times per season to prevent disease.
Harvesting and storage of eggplants
The first ripe fruits can be seen in July.
Harvesting begins on the basis of these signs:
- the flesh is elastic, saturated with juice,
- seeds in the fruit are bright,
- fruit length 10 cm and above,
- different varieties have their own color of fruit (from white to purple),
- the surface becomes glossy, glitters.
Collect the eggplants in time not allowing the fruits to ripen (color dark brown, hard, not tasty fruit) every week.
Eggplants are cut from the bushes with shears or carefully pulled off with their hands together with a part of the stem.
Eggplants are not stored for a long time, so you should preserve them in the form of caviar, pickle, dry, cut into pieces.
To preserve the fruits for about a month, it is worth placing the eggplants in a dark room with a temperature not higher than 10 degrees and high humidity.
Good eggplants are stored in the refrigerator. Due to the high taste qualities, eggplants are grown all over the world, they are widely used in the preparation of various dishes, canning.
Observing the technology of growing eggplants you can achieve high yields of beautiful and healthy vegetables.
Preparing for sowing
The vegetation period of the plant lasts 85 - 140 days, but under the conditions of a short summer in many regions it is impossible to wait for the emergence of mature fruit from seeds, therefore this crop is best grown from seedlings.
Sowing seedlings produced in loose soil, which includes:
- 2 pieces of humus,
- 1 part lowland peat,
- ½ pieces of seasoned sawdust or sand,
Reference! The stage of planting eggplant in the prepared soil is an important point, which further determines the yield and degree of resistance to diseases.
Shoots are forbidden to be planted in the soil in which there is:
- Fresh organic, because such a soil can have an unpleasant effect on the roots of a plant,
- Fresh sawdust, as the substances contained in the composition, increase the acidity of the soil, and add resinous substances to it. Before use, sawdust must be kept before purchasing a dark color, or boiling water is poured several times,
- Earth and humus, not treated with potassium permanganate, because they may contain pests and pathogens.
It is possible to improve the nutritional properties of the soil with the help of ash, dolomite flour and a complex of mineral fertilizers, which must be added in the amount of 110-155 grams per 10.5 kg of prepared soil.
Planting material must be sorted and soaked for half an hour in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate in order to protect plants from infections and insects in the future.
After that, the seeds are placed in a solution of boric acid, infusion of manure, wood ash or finished growth regulators for 4 or 5 hours. The procedure helps the seeds to germinate faster.
Sowing eggplant and growing seedlings
Sowing dry seeds in a hole 1.5 - 2 cm deep, will give the first shoots in 7 - 9 days. Seeds, soaked in advance, will start to grow for 4-5 days.
For this planting material is placed in a humid environment at a temperature of 26 degrees. Sow sprouts to a moist soil.
Before the appearance of the first shoots, planting is recommended to cover with a film, while observing a comfortable temperature regime from 21 to 26 degrees.
After the appearance of shoots, the cultivation of the plant is carried out at a temperature of 18 degrees, for 6 - 7 days, in order to enhance the growth of the roots.
Important! Seedlings need constant care. Drafts and temperatures below 13 degrees adversely affect the development and growth of seedlings, the plant may be at risk of a black leg, and it may also turn yellow or fade.
The basics of early flowering, as well as the improvement of the growth of seedlings, provide a long day of light for 12 to 14 hours, which can be provided to eggplants at home with the help of artificial light.
A plant pick is needed after the first leaflets appear. Without a picking, the plant will not be able to actively develop and bear fruit. Pass the plant along with the earthy ball, so as not to damage the root system.
A few days after sowing, seedlings watered with warm water 26 - 31 degrees. The first time to water the seedlings are best every 2 - 3 days, later in 6 days. In the suburbs of the 9-day break between watering would be appropriate.
Watering eggplant should be careful not to wet the leaves. Too wet ground and frequent watering lead to the development of diseases in the plant or to its death.
The first feeding is carried out after 7 -15 days with mineral fertilizers.
Recommendation! Hardening of seedlings before transplanting into open ground is best for 6 - 10 days.
Eggplant disease control
Observing all the features of growing plants, you can protect the eggplant from the effects of pests and reduce the risk of disease. It is not always possible to achieve a good harvest of eggplants, even if the rules for fertilizer, watering and planting are respected exactly.
It is important to know! In cold and rainy periods, the risk of a fungal, viral, and infectious nature of the plant increases.
With high humidity increases the likelihood of developing a disease such as black spot. The disease has a bacterial nature and manifests itself as black spots on the stem, cutting or along the veins on the leaf. The disease develops gradually and spots of dark glossy shade appear on the fruit.
Viral mosaic is found in plants grown in the southern regions. Manifested in the form of dark green and light green spots, which are clearly visible on the apical parts of the shoots. As the disease progresses, the leaves become deformed and turn yellow, and the number of flowers and ovaries decreases.
Brown patches of dead tissue are a sign of the development of viral internal necrosis. The development of this disease significantly reduces the yield of eggplant.
As preventive measures that help protect the plant from diseases, use:
- Collecting seeds from healthy plants,
- Selection and carrying out the procedure of seed disinfection,
- Disinfect the soil on which the plant will land,
- Compliance with the rules of crop rotation,
- Selection of strong seedlings,
- Compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering
- Destruction of plant residues at the site.
Damaged plants should be treated with caution, it is recommended to disinfect the equipment and use chemical and biological preparations, as well as foliar fertilizer.
Lack of any substance in the soil can have an adverse effect on the plant.
Lack of nitrogen leads to changes in the appearance of leaves and fruits. Shoots change shape and deform, and then fall. A large amount of nitrogen in the soil leads to the active growth of leaves and bushes, the growth and development of the fruit stops. This element accumulates in the shoots in the form of nitrates, which are dangerous to humans.
The lack of phosphorus in the soil leads to the fall of the leaves and the appearance of their purple hue. Lack of potassium leads to yellowing of the plant, drying of the leaves and the appearance of spots on the fruit. During the drought period and in areas with high soil oxidation, eggplant especially needs this element.
- Yellowing of the plant and their fast wilting is due to a lack of magnesium and manganese,
- The lack of boron and calcium also significantly affects the development of the plant, eggplant looks depressed.
Eggplant collection and storage
Mature fruits appear 150 days after the first shoots. Eggplants are recommended to be plucked in time to prevent over-ripening. Overripe fruits interfere with the appearance of ovaries. Mature eggplants must be cut with a knife along with a long stem. Storage is carried out in a dark and cool place at a temperature of 6 - 8 degrees using straw bedding.
ConclusionGrowing eggplant is not a difficult task, subject to compliance with all rules. When selecting seeds, special attention should be paid to the variety and growing conditions. Repot eggplant should be with extreme caution.
The right choice of seeds and seedlings
Seeds before planting go through the preparatory process:
- disinfection (soaking for 25 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, followed by rinsing),
- processing nutrients to stimulate growth (planting material is immersed for a day in a solution that is prepared from 1 liter of water 25-28 degrees and 1 tsp. nitrophoska),
- germination (seed moistening and keeping 1-2 days in a humid environment at a temperature of 30 degrees).
Pre-preparation may include hardening of seeds. To do this, they are placed for 2 days in a refrigerator (vegetable compartment), then kept for a day at 18 degrees, and then returned to cold place for 2 days.
After reaching young shoots of a height of 10 cm and the formation of 5-7 leaves, it is planned to transplant into open ground. 10-14 days before this, the seedlings are hardened, that is, they are daily taken out into the open air (without direct sunlight and drafts) for several hours to adapt.
How to grow eggplants in the open field - detailed instructions!
The beautiful eggplant is a welcome guest on our table, but not all gardeners manage to make friends with him.
Indeed, the process of growing this southern culture in the open field and not too warm climate is fraught with some difficulties.
However, with the right choice of variety, as well as compliance with a number of important rules and conditions, you can get a good harvest of strong, tasty fruits.
For seedlings planted in February or March, you need artificial lighting, since the light day is still very short. In total, seedlings should be in the light for 12 hours. For the first three days, keep the artificial light on 24 hours a day, and then turn it on as needed. Artificial lighting should be at a distance of about 50 cm from the seedlings. Best fit fitolampy or fluorescent lamps. The seedlings planted in April do not need artificial lighting, just keep it on the windowsill.
Eggplant seedlings love moisture, so it is important to water it regularly. However, you need to choose the correct mode of irrigation, in which the soil will always be moderately wet. If the soil dries up, you will get a small crop, if there is too much water in it, there is a risk of developing fungal diseases. Water the eggplant seedlings with a spray bottle. Use for this distilled water at room temperature. After each watering, slightly loosen the ground.
After 10-12 days after the appearance of the first shoots should be made dressing. To do this, dissolve 1 tablespoon of yellow Crystal in 10 liters of water. Immediately after fertilizing, be sure to water the seedlings so as not to burn the roots.
If you planted seeds in large boxes or containers, you will have to dive the seedlings when it has 2 leaves each. Use for this small tanks with drainage holes. Do the picking as carefully as possible. Please note, no pinching of eggplants is required.
Planting in the open ground and further care
The ready seedlings the day before planting must be plentifully watered and repeated watering immediately before cutting the seedlings from the box or pots.
The process of planting sprouts in the ground looks exactly the same as planting peppers: according to a certain pattern, holes (or grooves) are dug out in a bed, where a large amount of water is poured, and seedlings are planted in the resulting “dirt”. The land is compacted around the plants, and a layer of mulch from dry soil or peat is piled on top. The planting scheme should be chosen based on how certain varieties of eggplants grow - for compact plants between seedlings it will be enough to leave 40 cm, and for high varieties you will need at least 50 cm.
Since these vegetables are very afraid of the night cold, for the first time over them you need to stretch the film on the wire arcs. If you planted them in open ground in mid-May, cover the vegetables with a double layer of film. Remove the protective film will be around the middle of June, when the weather is warm. But at the same time, even in summer you need to constantly monitor the temperature and, if necessary, cover the plants for the night, if they promise a cold snap.
The first two weeks, the "blue ones" will grow very slowly. You can help them shallow loosening the beds, so that more air comes to the roots. With watering at this time it is recommended to wait, it is better to spray the plants with water with the addition of urea.
How to care for vegetables in the garden:
- loosen the ground regularly during the summer, not allowing it to harden, especially after the rains,
- the soil should always be slightly damp, watering it with water heated in the sun,
- for the whole season, three fertilizing with mineral fertilizers and slurry, or bird droppings is enough for the plants (the first dressing is 10 days after the planting of eggplants, the second - twenty days later, the third - at the beginning of fruiting),
- remove weeds in a timely manner and see that there are no pests or diseases on the fruit,
- hilling stimulates the development of adventitious roots, from which the fruit yield will increase.
What time to land
Planting seedlings of eggplants in open soil should be carried out only when the earth warms to at least 18 degrees, and the plants should be 8–10 weeks old (from the moment of emergence). The height of the seedlings by this time should be from 16 to 25 centimeters, also the plants should have from 8 to 10 true leaf plates, and sometimes there are several buds formed. It will be very good if, after disembarking the eggplant to the open ground, the threat of recurrent frosts will be left behind. As a rule, the most suitable time for planting eggplant in open soil is the first days of June.
For planting eggplant should choose a well-lit area, which must be protected from wind gusts. Eggplants are recommended to be planted on a plot where cabbage, cucumber, carrots, onions, garlic, zucchini, beans or peas previously grew. For planting, one should not choose a plot where peppers, physalis, potatoes, tomatoes, and also eggplants were grown.
Best of all, this vegetable crop grows in sandy or loamy soil. It also grows quite normally on heavier soil, but must be prepared before planting. To do this, you need to make humus and peat (for 1 square meter of the plot one bucket), and also add sawdust or large river sand to it. It is recommended to prepare the soil in advance in the autumn, about 6 months before planting the seedlings on the site, and fertilizers should be applied when digging the soil to the depth of the spade bayonet. Also, if you wish, you can make manure in the soil: in the fall it is used fresh, and in spring you can take only rotted manure. Experienced gardeners recommend preparing a site for eggplants in the autumn, while in the spring after the snow comes down, the ground should dry out well. After that, using a rake, it should be well loosened. If the soil is poor, then at the same time the following fertilizers should be applied to it: 1 tsp is taken for 1 square meter of land. urea, 2 tbsp. wood ash and 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
Rules of landing in open ground
Landing holes must be made at the site. Between them, it is necessary to keep a distance from 0.3 to 0.4 m, while their depth should be 20–30 mm higher than the height of the tank in which the seedlings are located, and the row spacing should be about 0.6 m. After that, prepared holes should be filled with water. Planting seedlings produced in the resulting in the pits of dirt. Before planting, eggplants should be watered well, they should be pulled out of the pot along with a clod of earth, after which they should be planted in open soil. After the seedlings are planted, the ground around them must be tamped. Then the surface of the site should be mulched peat or dry soil.
During the first 15 days, the land under the planted bushes should be all the time wet. In order to prevent excessively rapid drying of the soil, its surface must be mulched peat.
Growing eggplants in the greenhouse
For cultivation in the greenhouse, experts advise to choose hybrid varieties, and the best of them are considered: Purple miracle, the Nutcracker and Bagheera. Rules for planting eggplant seedlings in the greenhouse:
- The plants should have 8 or 9 true leaf plates.
- The root system of seedlings must be developed very well.
- The height of the plants should not be less than 20 centimeters.
- Planting in the greenhouse should be made after the seedlings reach the age of 65-75 days (from the moment of emergence).
It is very important to properly prepare the beds in the greenhouse. In the autumn, the soil is cleaned from plant residues, after which it is disinfected; for this purpose, a solution of blue vitriol is used (2 tbsp of liter for 1 bucket). 20 days before planting the seedlings in the greenhouse, fertilizer should be applied to the soil; 60 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of magnesium sulphate, 4 kilograms of humus, 30 grams of ammonium nitrate and the same amount of potassium sulphate are taken per square meter. Then you need to dig the soil, after which the surface of the beds level. The depth of the landing pits should slightly exceed the height of the pots, in which the seedlings grow, the distance between the bushes should be 0.45 m, and the width between the rows should be about 0.6 m.
Immediately before planting in the greenhouse, seedlings must be watered well. The plant must be carefully pulled out of the tank along with a lump of earth, after which they are rolled into the landing holes. The emptiness in the holes must be filled with soil, after which it should be tamped. Planted eggplants need to be watered. This culture is quite moisture-loving, in connection with this watering should be given special attention. Please note that you can water the planted plants a second time no earlier than 5 days after transplantation. Further irrigation mode - 1 time per week, when the fruiting period begins, you will need to water the eggplants more often (2 times in 7 days). Watering is done in the early morning and for this purpose they use tepid water. When eggplants are watered, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse, since the humidity of the air in it should not be increased. The recommended air temperature for growing eggplant is 28 degrees. It should be noted that the greenhouse should not be hotter than the recommended temperature, so ventilation should be given special attention, especially if it is very hot outside. In addition, in the heat, it is also necessary to regularly water the paths in the greenhouses. Feed plants need a couple of times throughout the season:
- The first time before fruiting begins, a fortnight after the transplantation of seedlings into the greenhouse. To do this, use mineral and complex fertilizers (Kemira or Mortar).
- The second feeding arrange after the start of fruiting. For this purpose, phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizers are used (1 tablespoon of ammonium nitrate superphosphate and ammonium nitrate is taken for 1 tbsp of water).
Organic matter should be added to the soil only 1 time, immediately before planting the eggplant. If you make it later, it can provoke active growth of greenery, as well as lush flowering, but the ovary on the bushes will not. It should be noted that in the greenhouse the bushes grow relatively fragile and rather high, so they are recommended to be tied up to supports. Also, experts advise to remove lateral processes from plants, while leaving only 5 of them to be the most powerful.
Due to improper care when growing eggplants in a greenhouse, tobacco mosaic or late blight can affect, sick bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Fitosporin or Zircon. For prevention purposes, it is recommended to systematically air the greenhouse, because these diseases develop due to excessively high humidity. In the greenhouse, these plants can be injured by insects such as whiteflies, aphids and spider mites. In order to prevent the occurrence of pests, it is also necessary to regularly air the greenhouse.
How to water
Especially strongly given plants need watering during mass fruiting. During the first decade after planting the seedlings into the soil, abundant watering can cause the bushes that have not yet had time to settle down, can weaken very much. For irrigation, you should use tepid (from 25 to 30 degrees) water. It is necessary to pour it carefully under the root, at the same time try to prevent the liquid from falling on the surface of the leaf plates of the bushes. When the plants are watered, you should gently loosen the surface of the soil between the rows, while pulling out all the weeds. During the season, it will be necessary to loosen the surface of the plot at least 5 times so that a strong crust does not appear on it. However, if after planting the site is covered with a layer of mulch (peat), then it will be possible to significantly reduce both the number of loosening and weed.
How to tie an eggplant
Greenhouse eggplants are much higher than those grown in open ground, so they should be tied up. Tie up the bushes in three places, while using stakes or trellis. As soon as the bushes are planted in the soil, it is necessary to tackle their formation in one stem, while some time later he will need a garter to support. On the bush should remain the most powerful shoots, while all other lateral processes must be cut. If there are only flowers and leaves on bushes, their stability is quite good. But after the formation of ovaries and during the growth of the fruit, there is a manifold increase in the load on the stem, in connection with this, their resistance sharply decreases (especially in tall varieties). The method of growing single-stem bushes is perfect for greenhouses, because it is very compact, making it possible to save a lot of space. If this vegetable crop is grown in the open field, then in this case, the formation of shrubs into several stems is recommended.
In order for the bushes to be more lush after their height is equal to 0.3 m, it is necessary to nip the tops of the main stem. In the case of an overgrown bush, it is necessary to remove all upper side shoots with the help of a pruner, but 2–5 of the strongest. When pruning you need to take into account that the remaining shoots should be evenly illuminated.
These plants need to be fed often enough, about 1 time in 15-20 days. The first dressing is done 2–3 weeks after transplanting seedlings into open soil. For fertilizing, you should use mineral fertilizers, while 10 grams of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, and from 3 to 5 grams of potassium sulfate are taken per 1 square meter of land. You can replace the listed fertilizers with crystalline, ammofoskoy or nitrophoska (per 1 square meter from 20 to 25 grams). During the following fertilizing the fertilizer rate must be increased by 1.5–2 times, but this is done gradually. After feeding is done, do not forget to water the area. Also, this culture can be fed and slurry. This plant also needs foliar dressing, for this the leaves on the bushes need to be sprayed with a solution of boric acid of weak concentration. If the summer is cool, then the foliage of eggplants is recommended to be sprayed with a solution of trace elements. Remember that the solution prepared for spraying plants on a leaf should be several times weaker compared to what they pour at the root.
Black leg is considered a fungal disease. In the affected plant, the root neck becomes black and collapses. After the disease of the root system occurs, the bushes wither and die. Most often, this disease affects the seedlings of eggplant, and its development is provoked by excessively high humidity of the air and the substrate.
Because of the mosaic, a gardener can lose about 15 percent of the eggplant harvest. In an infected bush an unusual motley color appears on the surface of the leaf plates. As a rule, the seedlings are affected by this virus during the picking.
Phytoplasma disease stolbur most often damages those plants that are grown in open ground, while greenhouse plants are less frequently affected. In the affected bushes, leaf plates acquire a purple-red color, while the upper ones become corrugated. Shoots become thicker and brittle, there is a deformation, drying and abscission of foliage. Suffer such a disease of cycled.
Gray rot is also a fungal disease, and its spread occurs through infected plant debris. This fungus exhibits particular activity at high humidity, and the temperature should be at least 20 degrees. The affected plants on the foliage, fruits and shoots form water spots of dark color, on the surface of which after a while a gray patina appears. As the disease progresses, inflorescences as well as fetuses are observed. Peduncles become black and dry, and the fruits first form a blurry, like subcutaneous specks, which gradually become more and more.
The most dangerous for this culture are such harmful insects as: spider mites, aphids and bare slugs. Spider mites and aphids are sucking insects that feed on plant sap. They pierce the surface of the shoots and leaf plates, as a result, they are drying, wilting and twisting. Slugs damage foliage, leaving only veins from it, and they also harm fruits.
To cure eggplants or get rid of harmful insects, bushes need to be processed in a timely manner and properly. But it is better to prevent infection with the disease than to fight it. For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is necessary to follow the rules of crop rotation; for this, these plants should not be planted in the area where undesirable precursors, such as the nightshade, have previously grown. Also, eggplants need to ensure proper care, and still need preventive soil handling at the site and seed before planting. For disinfection of seeds, they are immersed for 30 minutes in a strong solution of manganese potassium or in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. Soil processing is carried out before planting the eggplant, then when they are rooted, and after all the fruits have been harvested and crop residues removed from the site. In this case, for tillage use copper-containing means, for example, Bordeaux mixture or copper sulphate. Thanks to these preventive measures, plants will be protected from infection by mosaic or late blight. If the eggplants still get sick, then they will need to be sprayed with a solution of Fitosporin or Zircon.If the bushes are stung or stalked, they will not be cured, but for the purpose of prevention it is recommended to disinfect the substrate and seeds before sowing.
If the bushes are not very large number of slugs, you can try to collect them manually. But in the event that there are a lot of pests, then the surface between the rows should be loosened, and then covered with a layer of a mixture consisting of tobacco dust, wood ash and lime. For other pests, it is recommended to spray for prevention before flowering and after it with insecticidal preparations that quickly decompose, for example, Karbofos or Celtan, and you can optionally use Strela, which is safe for humans.
Types and varieties of eggplant
To date, there is a classification of eggplant, which divides this culture into 3 subspecies: European, Oriental and Indian.
- Eastern subspecies. Most of the varieties that are part of this subspecies, early and middle early. Bushes in such plants are not very high sprawling or semi-sprawling. Thin stems and shoots are painted in purple-green color. The small green leafy plates of an egg-shaped form have stalks and veins of a violet color. Not very large fruits have a serpentine, pear-shaped, spherical, sickle-shaped or cylindrical shape, as well as a dark purple color. The flesh of the fruit is white or light green with a slight bitterness.
- Western subspecies. It includes late and mid-season varieties. Bushes semi-sprawling or closed, they can be of medium height or high. The shoots are thick and green, their tops have purple pigmentation, which appears weakly enough. On the surface of large leaf plates of elongated ovoid shape there is pubescence, they have a green color, in some cases in the area of petioles and veins there is a brownish tint. The shape of relatively large fruits can be different, after they reach technical maturity, their color will change to purple-brown, purple-black, purple or dark-purple. The flesh is colored white-green or white-yellow, it is characterized by varying degrees of bitterness.
- Indian subspecies. It is represented in culture quite widely, however, in the middle latitudes, the varieties included in this subspecies are not grown.
The most popular varieties of the western subspecies, which are excellent for growing in mid-latitudes:
- Valentine. This early ripe variety is distinguished by its yield and resistance to tobacco mosaic. Black-purple fruits have a standard size of 5x26 centimeters. They have an elongated downward shape, as well as great taste.
- Purple miracle. This hybrid is an early one, it is distinguished by its yield and wilt resistance. Purple fruits on average weigh about 350 grams. The flesh has no bitterness and is colored light green.
- Czech early. This is a high-yielding early variety. Low bushes compact and strong. The shape of dark purple glossy smooth fruits ovoid. White-green pulp does not have bitterness.
- Black handsome. This early ripe variety is created by Danish breeders. The height of the bush is about half a meter. Cylindrical fruits have a very dark color, they weigh about 240 grams.
- Delicacy. Early variety. Bush reaches a height of 0.4 m. Dark purple fruits have white flesh without bitterness.
- Golden egg. This early hybrid grows, as a rule, as an ornamental plant. The shape of the average size of the fruit is similar to a goose egg.
- Donskoy. This variety is moderately productive. The average height of the bush is sredneraskidistym. The shape of the fruit is pear-shaped, they weigh about 180 grams.
- Epic. This early variety is high yielding and unpretentious. The fruits have an unusual drop-shaped dark purple color with a size of 10x22 centimeters.
- Donetsk harvest. This early ripe variety has a dark color; fruits are 15 centimeters in length and 40 mm wide. They weigh about 160 grams.
- Black Beauty. This early ripe variety has a high yield. The fruits are very large, they weigh about 0.9 kg.
- Maria. Dark purple not very large fruits have an elongated shape, they weigh about 220 grams. Fruits ripen very quickly, so that not a very large amount is compensated.
- Barbentane. The early grade differs in productivity and the long period of fructification. Fruits are shiny dark purple.
- Nautilus. The fruits of this medium early variety are dark purple and have a saber shape, they weigh about 0.5 kg. The variety grows well in a greenhouse.
- Arap. The height of a strong-growing shrub is about 100 cm. The length of fruits is about 25 centimeters, they are painted in a very dark shade of brown-purple color.
- Albatross. The variety is mid-season and high-yielding. The height of the bush is about 0.5 m. Pear-shaped fruits of violet-blue color weigh about 0.45 kg.
- Solara. This early variety is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and yield. Large fruits of dark purple color weigh about 1000 grams.